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Physical characteristics of flowing water
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abundant adults Africa algae amount amphipods animals aquatic areas Baetis benthic benthos biological biomass breeding brown trout caddis-worms calcium carbon cent channel Chironomidae cm./sec Creek current speed cycles cyprinids darters detritus diatoms Diptera discharge downstream drift ecology effect eggs emergence Ephemeroptera Europe example factor fairly fauna feed fish flow freshwater Gammarus genera genus Gessner gravel growth habitat hatch Hynes important increase insects invertebrates lakes large numbers larvae less Limnol live mayflies method Minckley move normal North America number of species numbers nymphs observed occur Oligochaeta oxygen particles period periphyton plankton plants Plecoptera populations presumably probably production Rhithrogena rhithron riffles rivers and streams rotifers running water running-water salmon samples sand season seems seen Shadin shown silt similar Similarly Simuliidae Simulium small streams snails spates specimens spring stoneflies stones stony stream bed stream-dwelling substrata substratum summer surface temperature tend Trichoptera types upstream varies winter zone